This is a disorder in which the contents of the stomach back up into the oesophagus, a condition known as Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The lining of the oesophagus can become inflamed and damaged by the fluids. The stomach produces acid and pepsin, which are the major components of the liquid that is regurgitated. Bile may also be present. Acid is the most dangerous of the liquid’s components.
GERD is a lifelong condition. GERD is a long-term condition that necessitates ongoing care. Normal people can also have reflux of stomach liquids into the oesophagus. GERD sufferers are more likely to experience reflux because the liquid they ingest includes more acid, which tends to linger in the oesophagus for a longer period of time. Reflux and acid can be mitigated by the body in many ways. As little acid as is still left in the oesophagus can be neutralised by saliva, which includes bicarbonate. When a person is upright, the oesophagus is protected by gravity, swallowing, and saliva.
Acid reflux can cause a variety of health issues.
Reflux of stomach fluids into the oesophagus can cause esophageal cells to become damaged. An esophageal ulcer is a break in the lining caused by inflammation. Esophageal haemorrhage is a possibility. An endoscopic or surgical procedure is required when the bleeding is serious enough to warrant a blood transfusion.
When the ulcers on the oesophagus heal, scars are created. The esophagus’s lumen becomes narrower due to the shrinkage of scar tissue. Strickenness is the medical term for this narrowing that has been scarred. Swallowed food may become lodged in the oesophagus as a result of this.
Esophageal cancer – Cells in the lining of the oesophagus are altered by long-term or severe GERD. Precancerous cells develop from these cells, and then cancer develops.
Refluxed acid irritates the esophageal nerves, resulting in a cough or asthma attack. Coughing is caused by the stimulation of additional nerves. When the nerves in the oesophagus are aroused, they cause the airways to become obstructed, leading to an asthma attack.
Irritation of the larynx and throat – The refluxed liquid enters the voice box and the throat, causing inflammation and a soar throat. This condition.
Lung inflammation and infection: Coughing and choking are symptoms of liquid reflux into the lungs. Infection of the lungs might result in pneumonia as a result of this.
In children, fluid in the sinuses and middle ears is caused by adenoids swelling, which blocks the nasal passageways from the sinuses and middle ears. They then become drenched in fluid.
Proton pump inhibitors, antacids, H2 blockers, pro-motility medications, foam barriers, surgery and endoscopy are some of the treatment options for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).