The digestive system is made up of the following organs: the mouth, the throat, the gullet (foodpipe), the stomach, the duodenum, and the small and large intestines, respectively. According to the science of diet, the food we eat should contain five constituents: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, mineral salts, and vitamins. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, and vitamins The first three parts on this list are meant to produce energy, which is necessary for an individual’s daily activities to function properly. One gramme of carbohydrate or protein provides 4.1 calories of energy, whereas one gramme of fat provides 9.2 calories of energy, according to research. Carbohydrates are found in great quantities in grains, potatoes, sugar, and other foods. Along with providing energy, proteins serve another crucial job in the body by helping to create the muscles that support the body’s functions. Plant proteins, which may be found in large quantities in pulses and dry nuts, and animal proteins, which can be obtained from animal sources such as eggs, meat, fish, poultry, milk, and so on, are the two types of proteins that exist. Animal proteins are particularly valuable, and as a result, vegetarians must include a sufficient amount of milk in their diet in order to meet their protein requirements. Additionally, fats can be obtained from two different sources, namely, plants and animals. Both of these are designed to have the same amount of energy. However, animal fats, which are found in foods such as butter, meat, eggs, fish, and poultry, are more valuable since they are high in the vitamins A and D that the body requires.
The human body is the source of a large number of minerals, including calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iodine, sulphur, and other elements. They have a crucial part in the regulation of the biochemical activity that occurs in the body, among other things. Calcium and phosphorus are two minerals that are fundamentally necessary for the correct development of bones and teeth. Many diseases are caused by mineral deficiencies, and it is therefore vital to consume adequate levels of these minerals in one’s diet to avoid these problems from occurring.
Vitamins, despite the fact that they are only required in trace levels, are frequently found to be missing in diets. They can be taken from a variety of sources, including fruits, vegetables, milk, and other dairy products, and they are extremely important in the preservation of the body’s health and vigour. Water is also required in huge quantities in addition to these nutrients, as water accounts for approximately 65 percent of the weight of our body and is responsible for nearly 65 percent of our weight. Water is found in vast quantities in bodily fluids such as saliva, blood, digestive juices, and endocrine secretions, among other things. Water aids in the regulation of the body’s temperature within the acceptable range.
The mouth is a vital organ in the process of eating. The food is sliced into bits with the teeth, ground into finer forms with the teeth, and moistened with saliva so that it can be easily passed down the throat without trouble. There are seven channels that come together in the pharynx, which is located adjacent to the mouth. There are two that come from the nose, one from the mouth, two that come from the ears, one that goes down to the lungs, and one that goes down to the stomach. Following its passage through the mouth and into the pharynx, the food travels down this final path, which is formed by the gullet or oesophagus, and eventually enters the stomach to be absorbed. After roughly two hours, the meal remains in the stomach, where it becomes combined with the hydrochloric acid and digestive secretions secreted by the stomach wall. After there, it travels to the duodenum, which is shaped like an inverted horse-shoe form. The pancreatic juice (secreted by the glands known as the pancreas), the bile (made by the liver), and the juice of the duodenum itself are all combined together in this section of the digestive tract. The elements of food, particularly the lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, are broken down into simpler compounds that may be digested by the body as a result of the action of various digestive juices. Approximately twenty-five feet length, the small intestine is responsible for the absorption of nutrients from food that have been digested by the body. In the big intestines (which are nearly five feet long), the remaining portion is expelled through the anus, which has absorbed water from the anus while in the large intestines. The assimilated ingredients of food are mostly stored in the liver, and they are transported to the tissues, muscles, and all other regions of the body through the circulation of blood and lymph.